A History of Technology by Charles Singer et al (eds)

By Charles Singer et al (eds)

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The size and shape ‘old’ composition o f three copper, one o f the bell to be east were proportioned to the thick­ ness o f the rim, mhich was taken from a traditional tin (sometimes with one eighteenth o f scale according to the weight o f the bell desired. From antimony or one twenty-fourth o f silver), a draseing made according to the rules strickle-coards were cut, with mhich to shape the moulding-clay to the but prefers to use an alloy o f three parts form o f the core and the outer mould.

M ilk, for example, was believed suitable only for the very young and the very old. Vegetables were distrusted on the grounds that they engendered wind and melancholy. ^ 1577-1644), original as their investigations were, did not cast m uch more light on the processes o f digestion, or on the nutritive needs o f the healthy individual. N or were the next two genera­ tions o f chemists more successful. T h e usual method o f analysing a foodstuff was to submit it to destructive distillation; the ‘watery’, ‘oily’, and ‘saline’ products obtained were then examined, and many erroneous conclusions drawn.

In the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries arsenic was frequently added to other copper alloys to improve castability and colour, but it is mentioned more frequently in the ‘Books o f Secrets’ than in the reputable metallurgical works. ’ Copper alloys containing sulphur, oxygen, and generally iron were inevitably produced during the processes o f refining the metal. T h e copper-lead alloy produced during the desilvering o f copper by liquation is o f interest in con­ nexion with alloy constitution, for the process depended on the fact that copper and lead are completely miscible in the liquid state at high temperanures, while a molten phase rich in lead and a solid phase rich in copper coexist at a low red heat.

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