By Vladimir Uspensky, A.L. Semenov

Today the idea of the set of rules is generic not just to mathematicians. It varieties a conceptual base for info processing; the life of a corresponding set of rules makes automated details processing attainable. the idea of algorithms (together with mathematical common sense ) types the the oretical foundation for contemporary laptop technology (see [Sem Us 86]; this text is termed "Mathematical good judgment in machine technology and Computing perform" and in its identify mathematical good judgment is known in a vast feel together with the idea of algorithms). even if, now not all people realizes that the be aware "algorithm" encompasses a reworked toponym Khorezm. Algorithms have been named after an outstanding sci entist of medieval East, is al-Khwarizmi (where al-Khwarizmi skill "from Khorezm"). He lived among c. 783 and 850 B.C. and the 12 months 1983 was once selected to have fun his 1200th birthday. a brief biography of al-Khwarizmi compiled within the 10th century starts off as follows: "al-Khwarizmi. His identify is Muhammad ibn Musa, he's from Khoresm" (cited in accordance with [Bul Rozen Ah eighty three, p.8]).

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Allows to deduce it "from nothing"). Therefore only a finite number of complexes will be admissible according to O-premise rules (not more than the number of O-premise rules in our calculus). In the case of a k-premise rule for k ~ 1 a "permitting" rule must be (as we have said) a local action in the sense of chap. 1; we need only (if k > 1) to represent a k- tuple of complexes al, ••. , ak as one complex (of an 36 Ch. 3. Calculus "enriched" aggregate, as mentioned in chap. 0). A simple but important remark: any aggregate may be generated by some calculus (and therefore by a Kolmogorov-type calculus).

To do this we declare that if I is a n-ary functional symbol from u then the value of I is defined as: I itself if n = 0; a mapping (tl, ... , tn) ~ I(tl, ... , tn) if n > O. Declare the values of all predicate symbols to be predicates being false everywhere. We obtain an algebraic system called the lree algebraic system generated by the signature u. So we call the object usually called a free algebra of a signature p with generators al, ... , a, a free algebra generated by the signature u = p U {al, ...

According to this the whole descriptive theory of algorithms can be treated as a theory of a single universal algorithm based on a certain representative model. It seems that different universal algorithms may lead to different theories of algorithms. But this is not true: algorithm theory is unique. This uniqueness is confirmed by the Rogers' theorem on the isomorphism of Godel numberings, and the Muchnik's theorem on the isomorphism of computational structures. These theorems will be discussed in chap.