By John L. Provis, Jannie S. J. van Deventer
This is a cutting-edge document as a result of the paintings of RILEM Technical Committee 224-AAM within the interval 2007-2013. The file summarises examine to this point within the zone of alkali-activated binders and concretes, with a specific specialize in the next parts: binder layout and characterisation, sturdiness trying out, commercialisation, standardisation, and supplying a ancient context for this rapidly-growing examine field.
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Extra info for Alkali Activated Materials: State-of-the-Art Report, RILEM TC 224-AAM
Roman concretes differ widely in composition, performance and durability; of specific interest in the context of this Report are the concretes which were based on the activation of pozzolanic materials (volcanic ash sourced from areas including what is now the Pozzuoli (formerly Puteoli) region of southern Italy ) with calcium compounds, particularly lime, where the elevated pH generated by the reaction of the lime initiated the reaction of the pozzolanic material. The volcanic ashes used in these concretes often included significant contents of alkalis , and the final concrete products, when examined after 2,000 years in service, often contain evidence of the presence of zeolites including analcime.
A further point to mention is that much of the degradation observed in modern concretes is due to the corrosion of embedded steel reinforcing, while the unreinforced Roman structures are not subject to this mode of decay. Early Roman mortars appear to be predominantly based on the development of hardness and strength by carbonation of lime, until it was discovered (either by experimentation or by implementation of knowledge gained from surrounding civilisations) that the formation of aluminosilicate binding phases by the inclusion of volcanic silica-containing ash and/or fired clay gave improvements; that is, changing their mineralogical composition gave an increase in durability.
2 below. 15K, of the alkali hydroxides as a function of cation size. The importance of this is that, in preparing a concentrated hydroxide solution, a significant temperature increase will take place, which may be problematic in an industrial context. The actual heat released by dissolution into a concentrated solution will be slightly less than the infinite-dissolution values, as the additional heat of dilution incurred by moving to infinite dilution will not be a factor. However, the enthalpy of dissolution dominates over the dilution effects, accounting for around 90 % of the total enthalpies plotted in Fig.
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