Animal Diversity by Cleveland P. Hickman Jr., Larry S. Roberts, Allan Larson

By Cleveland P. Hickman Jr., Larry S. Roberts, Allan Larson

The 3rd variation of Animal range offers a survey of the animal state with emphasis on range, evolutionary relationships, useful variations, and environmental interactions. it truly is adapted for a one-semester or one-quarter direction and is acceptable for either non-science and technology majors.

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This ability is called the intrinsic rate of increase, denoted by the symbol r. 6 shows this kind of growth. If species actually grew in this fashion unchecked, earth’s resources soon would be exhausted and mass extinction would follow. A bacterium dividing three times per hour could produce a colony a foot deep over the entire earth after a day and a half, and this mass would be over our heads only one hour later. Animals have much lower potential growth rates than bacteria, but could achieve the same kind of result over a longer period of time, given unlimited resources.

Genetically, alleles IA and IB are dominant to i, but i is nearly as frequent as IA and exceeds the frequency of IB in both populations. Dominance describes the phenotypic effect of an allele in heterozygous individuals, not its relative abundance in a population of individuals. We will demonstrate that Mendelian inheritance and dominance do not alter allelic frequencies directly or produce evolutionary change in a population. Why have genetically dominant alternatives not gradually supplanted these recessive traits?

However, even some unitary species reproduce by parthenogenesis. Parthenogenetic species are found in many animal groups, including insects, reptiles, and fish. Usually such groups contain only females, which lay unfertilized eggs that hatch into daughters genotypically identical to their mothers. The praying mantid Bruneria borealis, common in the southeastern United States, is a parthenogenetic unitary animal. Parthenogenesis (“virgin origin”) is the development of an embryo from an unfertilized egg or one in which the male and female nuclei fail to unite following fertilization.

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