The Outer Planets and their Moons: Comparative Studies of by T. Encrenaz (Editor), R. Kallenbach (Editor), T. Owen

By T. Encrenaz (Editor), R. Kallenbach (Editor), T. Owen (Editor), C. Sotin (Editor)

Representatives of numerous clinical groups, equivalent to planetary scientists, astronomers, house physicists, chemists and astrobiologists have met with the purpose to study the information on 4 significant subject matters: (1) the learn of the formation and evolution procedures of the outer planets and their satellites, starting with the formation of compounds and planetesimals within the sunlight nebula, and the next evolution of the interiors of the outer planets, (2) a comparative examine of the atmospheres of the outer planets and Titan, (3) the learn of the planetary magnetospheres and their interactions with the sun wind, and (4) the formation and houses of satellites and earrings, together with their interiors, surfaces, and their interplay with the sun wind and the magnetospheres of the outer planets. past those subject matters, the consequences for the prebiotic chemical evolution on Europa and Titan are reviewed. on the time of book, the examine of the outer planets is especially stimulated by way of the truth that the Saturn approach is being investigated by means of the Cassini-Huygens project.

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Additional info for The Outer Planets and their Moons: Comparative Studies of the Outer Planets prior to the Exploration of the Saturn System by Cassini-Huygens (Space Sciences Series of ISSI)

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2004). Oxygen formed water vapor or combined to minerals to produce H2 O-bearing components. Solid phase materials produced grains and subsequently planetesimals. Meteorites found today are presumably relics of planetesimals which formed telluric planets, and possibly the cores of giant planets. Their composition does not permit us however to interpret that of envelopes of these planets. 2. T HE O UTER N EBULA The situation is completely different in the cold outer nebula where the chemistry between neutral components is kinetically inhibited.

J. 503, 923–937. : 2000, ‘Possible rapid gas giant planet formation in the solar nebula and other protoplanetary disks’, Astrophys. J. 536, L101–L104. : 2001, ‘Gas Giant Protoplanet Formation: Disk Instability Models with Thermodynamics and Radiative Transfer’, Astrophys. J. 563, 367–373. : 2003, ‘A Theory for the Radius of the Transiting Giant Planet HD 209458b’, Astrophys. J. 594, 545–551. C. S. ), Protostars and Planets II, Univ. Arizona Press, Tucson, pp. 448–483. : 2001, ‘Making More Terrestrial Planets’, Icarus 152, 205–224.

The star indicates the calculated high N enrichment when N2 is supposed have been trapped. The diamond, the circle and the square correspond to the case where N2 was never clathrated, so that the enrichment results only from the condensation of the NH3 hydrate (assuming N2 /NH3 = 10) The lower limit, the central value and the upper limit of the Xe, S and N enrichments, and of the minimum oxygen enrichment are indicated by the same symbols. The cross (x) is the oxygen enrichment inferred by Lodders and Fegley (1994) from the value of CO measured in the upper troposphere of Neptune (see Table II).

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